EEG Spectral Power and Coherence: Differentiating Effects of Spatial–Specific Neuro-Operant Learning (SSNOL) Utilizing LORETA Neurofeedback Training in the Anterior Cingulate and Bilateral Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices


  • Rex Cannon
  • Joel Lubar



Introduction. This study investigated differences in topographical spectral power and coherence resulting from Spatial-Specific Neuro-Operant Learning utilizing low-resolution electromagnetic tomographic (LORETA) neurofeedback in three regions of the cortex: the cognitive division of anterior cingulate (AC, BA 32) and right (RPFC) and left (LPFC) dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (BA 8). Method. This study was conducted with 14 nonclinical participants. All completed 20 sessions of LORETA neurofeedback in specific regions of the cortex in which they received visual and auditory reward for increasing 14 to 18 Hz activity in the region of training (ROT). We compared all training rounds for each ROT. Results. There are significant effects resulting from training in each ROT in both spectral power and coherence. Conclusions. Training in the AC appears to elicit activation patterns significantly different from training in both the RPFC and LPFC; similarly, the training in the AC and RPFC influence regions different than the LPFC. These patterns also appear in coherence. More important, the AC influences differentiation and integration effects significantly different from both prefrontal regions.