A Modular Activation/ Coherence Approach to Evaluating Clinical/QEEG Correlations and for Guiding Neurofeedback Training: Modular Insufficiencies, Modular Excesses, Disconnections, and Hyperconnections


  • Jonathan E. Walker
  • Gerald P. Kozlowski
  • Robert Lawson




Current approaches to QEEG-guided neurofeedback involve efforts to normalize the abnormalities seen, without reference to the functional localization of the cortical areas involved. Recent advances in cortical neurophysiology indicate that specific brain areas are developed to perform certain functions (cortical modules). Complex brain functions require cooperation between modules, particularly during a learning situation. For example, the left prefrontal “activation module” must cooperate with one or both occipital “visual modules” to attend and see something on a chalkboard. To remember what has been seen, both temporal “memory modules” must cooperate with the visual modules for the image to be retained in short-term memory. If the connections between these modules are not functioning optimally, visual learning will be impaired. Decreased coherence (hypocoherence) indicates a decrease in functional connectivity between these modules, and increased coherence (hypercoherence) indicates an increase in functional connectivity between the modules. Neurofeedback can be used to normalize coherence between these modules, thereby improving the efficiency of their cooperation in the learning process. If coherence is less than normal, it is trained up. If coherence is more than normal, it is trained down. Three cases are presented where this approach has succeeded in remediating the client’s symptoms.