EEG Spectral-Power and Coherence: LORETA Neurofeedback Training in the Anterior Cingulate Gyrus


  • Rex Cannon
  • Joel Lubar
  • Aric Gerke
  • Keri Thornton
  • Teresa Hutchens
  • Victoria McCammon



Introduction. This study examines the EEG spectral power and coherence changes that occur as a result of LORETA neurofeedback (LNFB) training, which is a recently developed spatial-specific neurofeedback protocol in which it has been demonstrated that human beings can learn to change activity in their own anterior cingulate gyrus. We trained individuals to increase low-beta (14-18 Hz) activity in the cognitive division of the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACcd). Methods. This study was conducted with eight non-clinical students with a mean age of 22. The participants completed over 30 sessions of LNFB training. We utilized the WAIS-III for pre- and post-psychometric measures to assess the influence of this training protocol. Results. We selected training Sessions 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 for comparison to Session 1. There are significant increases in absolute power and coherence over sessions. There is significant increase in the working memory and processing speed subtest scores. Discussion. The anterior regions of the cortex increase in the low-beta frequency relative to the ACcd at significant levels. The superior prefrontal cortex and occipital regions increase in the higher beta frequencies, but not in the trained frequency. The improvements in the working memory and processing speed scores suggest that LNFB had an overall positive effect in attentional processes, working memory, and processing speed.