The Neurophysiology of Dyslexia: A Selective Review with Implications for Neurofeedback Remediation and Results of Treatment in Twelve Consecutive Patients


  • Jonathan E. Walker
  • Charles A. Norman



Dyslexia is a common and important problem in all industrial societies, with a prevalence rate of five to ten percent, for which no consistently effective treatment is available. Recent advances in imaging (morphometric MRI, functional MRI, PET, regional cerebral blood flow), as well as in neurophysiology (evoked potentials, QEEG, event-related desynchronization, coherence studies, magnetic source imaging, reading difference topography) have clarified our understanding of the normal circuitry involved in reading and differences seen in individuals who have trouble learning to read. These studies have important implications for the use of neurofeedback to help dyslexic individuals learn to read more easily. First, we obtain a QEEG and a reading difference topograph. We then train down any abnormalities that are significantly increased and train up any abnormalities that are significantly decreased. Increasing 16-18 Hz activity at T3 (left mid-temporal area) has also proved quite helpful in improving reading speed and comprehension. These combined approaches have been helpful in all cases of dyslexia we have treated, dramatically so in some cases. Each of the 12 individuals treated improved by at least two grade levels after 30 to 35 sessions.