EEG-NeuroBioFeedback Treatment of Patients with Brain Injury: Part 2: Changes in EEG Parameters versus Rehabilitation


  • Rima E. Laibow
  • Albert N. Stubblebine
  • Henry Sandground
  • Michel Bounias



Background. A sample of 27 patients with brain injury distributed in five clinical classes was examined for pre- and post-treatment symptoms and associated power spectra. Methods. Changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) compressed spectral arrays were analyzed with respect to the rate of rehabilitation and correlated with a checklist of symptoms for each patient and the group as a whole. Results. Targeted decreases in slower (3-7 Hz) and higher (24-32 Hz) frequencies, and EMG (70-90 Hz), and increases of alpha (8-12 Hz) and mid-range beta frequencies (15-18 Hz) were achieved following Neuro-BioFeedback (NBF) treatment using positive reward tones and a simultaneous visual reward. The impact of gender and age class influence was assessed against treatment results. Single lead EEG power spectra changes were analyzed for hemispherectomized patients, stroke, car accident and trauma patients. A common EEG pattern was observed for a group of patients exhibiting vertigo with two subgroups in which vertigo resolved or did not resolve showing EEG differences. Conclusions. EEG NeuroBioFeedback can successfully treat patients with brain injury with highly clinically-meaningful clinical results. Changes in Cz power spectra generally occur, but do not always immediately follow resolution of symptoms. Since EEG-NBF is limited to recording cortical surface potentials, it is possible that changes induced by the treatment which result in clinical changes may not always be reflected at the cortical surface and hence may not be available for recording and analysis there, despite subcortical integration.