EEG Biofeedback Training and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in an Elementary School Setting


  • Dennis P. Carmody
  • Diane C. Radvanski
  • Sonia Wadhwani
  • Mary Jo Sabo
  • Linda Vergara



Introduction: EEG biofeedback was conducted on site in an elementary school. Method: An experimental group of eight children ages 8-10 completed 35-47 sessions of EEG biofeedback training over a six-month period. Four participants in the experimental group were diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and four were not diagnosed with ADHD. Eight children in the waitlist control group were matched to the experimental group on age, grade, teacher, and diagnosis. None of the 16 participants were medicated for ADHD. Results: Attention abilities as measured by the Test of Variables of Attention showed the experimental group of children with ADHD reduced errors of commission and anticipation, indicating a reduction in impulsivity. Teacher reports using the McCarney Scale indicated improvements in attention but no changes in impulsivity and hyperactivity. Discussion: Several confounds require exploration before attribution of changes are assigned to neurofeedback. Whether the effects are due to the neurofeedback protocols, attendance at individual sessions away from the classroom, the attention of the technician, or the excitement of a special program cannot be determined with this study. It will be necessary to have a placebo group in order to separate systematically the variables in the training program.